5 most important representatives of PERSPECTIVISM
In the lesson of a TEACHER we are going to meet the main representatives of theperspectivism. A philosophical current that developed between the XIX-XX centuries, and according to which, the knowledge of any reality can be obtained through different perspectives or points of view (cognitive), because each one of the perspectives is indispensable for the whole.
In this way, within this doctrine are framed great philosophers such as Gottifried Leibniz (1646-1716), Gustav Teichmüler (1832-1888), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1923) or José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955). If you want to know more about perspectivism representatives, pay attention and keep reading this article.
Before studying the main authors of the perspectivism, we are going to explain to you what this philosophical doctrine that was developed with authors such as Gottifried Leibniz consists of (1646-1716), Gustav Teichmüler (1832-1888), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1923) or José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955) or Jon Mill.
In this way, the perspectivism is based on three big ideas:
- Every human being knows the reality according to your point of view and all knowledge is subject to that point of view or perspective.
- the truth exists, but we cannot get to know it if we do not make a sum of all the perspectives, that is, if we want to know the real truth of a matter we must know the different versions of said question.
- in a perspective Multiple perspectives can come together that is, different points of view from different people. Therefore, each perspective is valuable (we are unique beings) and the only false perspective is the one that tries to be unique.
Having explained perspectivism, we proceed to study the three most important representatives of perspectivism.
1. Gottifried Leibniz, 1646-1716
Leibniz is considered the promoter of perspectivism with the publication of his work Dissertation on combinatorial art (1666). Where he establishes (starting from the thought of discards) that all thoughts or concepts start from simpler ones, through which they can be detached and reach great ideas. That is, a knowledge or concept is the sum of several concepts = perspectives.
He later he developed his theory of knowledge, which establishes that the individual approaches the world from his own interpretation of it and that there are different ways of accessing knowledge, which are at the same time ways true, contingent and different. Thus, he defines these ways of accessing knowledge as perspective or points of view that must be respected, as long as they have a logical-formal coherence.
Also, within this theory coins the concept monad: Ultimate element of the universe that stand as a perspective of the universe.
"The same city seen from different sides seems completely different and is multiplied perspectively (...) there are different universes that, however, are different perspectives of only a few, according to the points of view of each monad”
2. Friedrich Nietzsche, 1844-1923
Nietzsche is a German philosopher who establishes that the interpretation of the world is developed by the perception of each one (from a place and specific moment), that knowledge and the world can be approached from different points of view, all of them valid and justified. Being the perspective of each subject, only Y multiple/subjective viewpoints, which leads us to a better understanding and more interpretive possibilities on an issue.
“Every representation of the world is a representation made by a subject; the idea that we can do without the vital situation of the subject, of the physical, psychological, historical or biographical features of him, to reach an understanding of the world as it can be ”
In this way, for Nietzsche nothing can be reduced to a single category or absolute and immovable truth. Hence he tells us thatGod is dead and the new philosophy/superman has been born: With God dead there is no longer where to hold on because he has the absolute disappeared and progress, science or nature has been born.
Thus, accepting the death of God, it is accepted that there is no other foundation for morality than the human being, denying the absolute and accepting perspectivism and that it is possible vlive in the future, which would be the essential condition for the birth of the superman. He who is capable of generating his his own value system.
3. Jose Ortega y Gasset, 1883-1955
Ortega y Gassetis the main representative of perspectivism (2nd philosophical stage) and states that perspective is a component of reality. Idea that is directly related to what he defines as circumstance: Everything that is part of our world, but that we have not chosen (year of birth, parents, sex, language, hair color...) and the one that saves us (the one that allows us to live in a environment/reality). That is to say, my circumstance builds my perspective from which I know, I build reality and from which I seek meaning in what surrounds me and in reality: "I am myself and my circumstance, and if I don't save her, I don't save myself."
On the other hand, he also argues that the truth is not absolute, objective, unique and timeless (rationalism), but we can only know the truth from our particular perspective and it is given from the circumstance of each one (= the circumstance and the reality of the self).
Therefore, the truth passes through realizing reality from our circumstance and, therefore, it is subjective, individual, temporary and a sum of perspectives that complement each other: We must know the different versions of an issue because they are valid and we must recognize the rest of the individuals in the construction of the truth.
“Whoever wants to teach us a truth that does not tell us: that places us in such a way that we can discover it ourselves”. The topic of our time