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Contemporary Philosophy: Most Important Authors

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Contemporary Philosophy: Most Important Authors

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The contemporary philosophy It is the current period in the history of philosophy, it follows modern philosophy, it begins between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The main currents of this time were analytical philosophy, logical positivism, phenomenology, existentialism and poststructuralism. The most representative philosophers of this last stage of philosophy would be Marx, Nietzsche, Sartre, Russell and the malagueña, Maria Zambrano. In this lesson from a PROFESSOR, we will briefly summarize contemporary philosophy and the most important authors of this period.

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Index

  1. Karl Heinrich Marx, one of the most important philosophers
  2. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
  3. Jean Paul Sartre, another of the most important philosophers
  4. Bertrand Russell
  5. María Zambrano, another of the most important authors

Karl Heinrich Marx, one of the most important philosophers.

Marx is the one of the main representatives of contemporary philosophy

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and his work is the result of the influence of Hegelian philosophy, French utopian socialism, and English political economy. From now on, Marx he develops his philosophy, but starting from a new thought. Unlike Hegel, considers that the idea that everything real is rational, in addition to an error, supposes a brake on development political, since he comes to say that you have to accept things as they are, come as they come, without trying to change nothing. But this is not possible in a capitalist society, which abuses the proletariat, perpetuating the class difference. A) Yes, Marx proposes a revolution that it ends up transforming the state to finally annihilate it.

The philosopher inverts the Hegelian dialectic and applies it to history and economics and thus, the historical materialism. According to Marxist theory, the tension produced between the working class and the capitalist will inevitably lead to their destruction, due to the general impoverishment of the proletariat, as a consequence of the accumulation of wealth in the hands of Of a few. And these same internal contradictions will bring about its destruction.

The expropriator will be expropriated, but not without first going through a series of stages. For the transformation of society into a classless society, that is, communist, a process is necessary, which begins with a first phase of dictatorship of the proletariat, to continue with a socialist phase and finally, culminating the revolutionary process with the abolition of private property, the disappearance of social classes and the annihilation of the state.

The history of all societies is the history of class struggles. " Marx and Engels. The Manifesto of the Communist Party.

Contemporary Philosophy: Most Important Authors - Karl Heinrich Marx, One of the Most Important Philosophers

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Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche.

Another of the most important authors of contemporary philosophy is Nietzsche and his vitalist philosophy, exerted a strong influence at the end of the XIX and a good part of the XX century, mainly due to its critical nature but also for his defense of a transmutation of the values ​​of Western culture, an idea that is reflected in the Superman.

The whole of his philosophy constitutes a criticism of all western culture, based on metaphysics, morals and religion, which have inverted the values ​​of life. The basis of Western culture is resentment against life, and therefore it has to be overcome.

The Superman it is the center of all Nietzschean philosophy, because man is something to be overcome. And this overcoming will come with the death of God and the acceptance that there are no values ​​to hold on to, there are no foundations, that is, the nihilism. It is necessary to destroy old values ​​to rebuild new ones. It is then when the superman appears. Because the human being is not something static, but is a constant becoming, it is will to power creative, which reaches its maximum expression with the eternal return.

The individual, says Nietzsche, has lost the sense of the earth, and has been dissolved in society. The superman is the sense of the earth. Say your will: let the superman be the meaning of the earth!(Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, prologue).

Contemporary Philosophy: Most Important Authors - Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche

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Jean Paul Sartre, another of the most important philosophers.

We cannot speak of contemporary philosophy without mentioning Sartre. The French philosopher and writer Jean Paul Sartre is considered the main representative of the current existentialist. His active involvement in political life has made him an example of social and political commitment.

Sartre's thought, like that of Heidegger, is based on the phenomenology of Husserl, to develop a theory of being, which starts from the distinction of two ways of being: being itself, or the phenomena and being for himself, that of consciousness.

The human being, affirms the philosopher, is freedom, and in this sense, freedom is presented as a condemnation, since it is not free to stop being free. He is doomed to continually have to choose. And this manifests itself in anguish, the metaphysical experience of nothingness or of freedom without direction.

Contemporary philosophy: most important authors - Jean Paul Sartre, another of the most important philosophers

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Bertrand Russell.

The author, along with Whitehead, of the work Mathematic Principle He made great contributions to mathematical logic, but over time, he moved into the field of philosophy, partly influenced by Wittgenstein. He is, without a doubt, one of the best known and most influential authors of contemporary philosophy, and has gone down in history, for his enormous sense of ethics and to his consideration of it, as of vital importance for civil discourse, defending that even reason should be subordinate to considerations ethical.

At first, Russell clung to Bradley's idealism, to later change to a platonic realism. Afterward, he moves toward commonsense realism, a la Moore.

The best known doctrines of her are the following: logical constructionism, logical atomism and neutral monism. He also writes a series of works on moral, religious and socio-political problems. Russell's philosophy focused on the search for objective and impersonal truth successively in religion, in mathematics, and in science.

Contemporary Philosophy: Most Important Authors - Bertrand Russell

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María Zambrano, another of the most important authors.

And we close this lesson with the most important authors of contemporary philosophy to talk about María Zambrano, whose philosophy moves between ethics and poetry. This great thinker has her own style of writing, a unique method, although it is true that her contribution to philosophy was not recognized until she arrived in Spain, after exile, with the award of two of the most important awards, the Prince of Asturias Award and the Premio Cervantes.

María Zambrano, who according to those who know her was born a philosopher, speaks in her work of two types of attitude: the philosophical attitude and the poetic attitude. The first is the one that originates when the human being asks himself questions. And the second will be precisely the answer to those questions.

His original language, his critical discourse, which he fostered in the long debates he had with his grandfather since she was a child, and her great sensitivity, have made her worthy of the recognition that today enjoy.

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Contemporary philosophy: most important authors - María Zambrano, another of the most important authors

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Bibliography

Marx and Engels. The Manifesto of the Communist Party. Editorial Alliance

Diego Sánchez Meca. History of Modern and Contemporary Philosophy. Ed. Dykinson

Friedrich Nietzsche. Thus spoke Zarathustra. Ed. Edaf

Maria Zambrano. Exile as a Homeland. Ed Anthropos

Jean Paul Sartre. Being and Nothingness. Editorial Alliance

Bertrand Russell. The Conquest of Happiness. Agapea

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