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The 8 types of Neurologists (and what neurological pathologies they treat)

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Neurology is the branch of medicine whose work focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of problems related to malfunctioning of the nervous system.

Therefore, neurologists, that is, specialists in the field of neurology, are responsible for the study and intervention in diseases and disorders of the brain, the nervous system, both central and peripheral, and the blood vessels that supply them parts. Affectations on these parts imply problems of various types, for this reason, within the field of neurology there are several specializations.

Types of neurologists (and what diseases they treat)

There are neurologists who specialize in everything that has to do with cerebral blood vessels. Others focus their work on treating problems associated with the evolutionary stage, whether in childhood or old age. The truth is that there are several types of neurologists, which we will see in more detail below.

  • Related article: "Differences between neuropsychology and neurology"

1. Clinical neurophysiologists

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These types of professionals are fundamentally in charge of detecting nervous disorders, due to that there is some type of problem that prevents nerve signals from reaching the brain and being there interpreted.

Clinical neurophysiologists are responsible for evaluate the neurological functions of patients and, based on this, diagnose whether there are deficits in this area.

For it They use devices that allow monitoring nerve impulses. Some of the techniques they use are electroencephalograms (EEG), evoked potentials, electromyography, and nerve conduction velocity tests.

2. Vascular neurologists

Some neurological problems are due to problems with the circulation of the brain, such as strokes and aneurysms.

Vascular neurologists are responsible for diagnose and treat neurological problems due to incorrect blood flow in the brain.

To do this, they use advanced neuroimaging techniques typical of radiological laboratories, in addition to tiny cameras that they insert into blood vessels to be able to see more accurately what the lesion is in question.

3. Pain management and palliative care

People who suffer from some type of neurological problem may be suffering from chronic pain, which worsen with the passage of time, in addition to affecting both physical and mental abilities. mental. Usually, pain due to an organic cause is usually cured by intervening directly on it, but in the case of neuropathic pain, where the pain is due to a malfunction of the nervous system, this is more complicated.

Some neurologists specialize in help the patient manage their pain, providing them with pharmacological treatments in order to reduce it.

In the case of patients whose illness is terminal, there are neurologists whose task is focused on making the last moments of the patient's life less painful.

4. Neurodevelopmental and neuromuscular neurologists

There are medical conditions in which the long-term development of the patient is affected.. To give some examples, these would be Down syndrome and cerebral palsy, which are not curable.

This is why people with this type of problem require lifelong treatment. Neurologists can help patients bring out their full potential, contributing to a greater degree of independence and autonomy.

In the case of problems with neuromuscular involvement, such as amyotropic lateral sclerosis and muscular dystrophy, where motor abilities are progressively lost, there is also no healing.

Neurologists specialized in these types of disorders can help slow the progress of these diseases, causing the patient's standard of living to take longer to be severely reduced.

  • You may be interested: "The 15 most common neurological disorders"

5. Pediatric neurologists

Although the nervous system in children is similar to that of adults, it is not yet well formed. In addition, children need to perfect some skills and to do so they need the appropriate stimuli.

Pediatric neurologists specialize in techniques focused on helping children's normal development occur in the most satisfactory way possible, in addition to detecting those needs that may arise.

Typically, the work of pediatric neurologists overlaps with that of neurodevelopmental neurologists and neuromuscular disorders, given that the disorders that are most detected in children usually affect development and their mobility.

6. Geriatric neurologists

These types of professionals are in charge of diagnose, treat and care for older people who suffer from some type of neurological problem. They also specialize in how the central nervous system ages and how age is a risk factor for developing neurological problems.

Some of the neurological conditions that occur most frequently in older people are dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and gait disorders. They also specialize in knowing how to treat these problems through pharmacological means.

As with pediatric neurologists, geriatric neurologists focus on aspects that are overlap with those of other types of specialists in the field of neurology, such as neurologists behavioral.

Given the changes in the demographic pyramid, This branch of neurology has become increasingly in demand, serving especially people born between 1945 and 1965.

7. Autonomic neurologists

These types of neurologists focus on symptoms that are due to problems in the autonomic system. Some diseases affect the autonomic system, such as Adie syndrome, autoimmune autonomic neuropathy, hyperhidrosis, Shy-Drager syndrome, postural tachycardia and some types of diabetes.

Most of the autonomic symptoms present in these diseases are heart rhythm problems, involuntary movements when breathing and swallowing, as well as changes in the diameter of the vessels blood

Neurologists specialized in this type of problems must have deep knowledge about the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, in addition to knowing what are the ways to evaluate this type of problems and knowing what treatments are most appropriate for each case.

  • You may be interested: "The 7 types of neurological tests"

8. Behavioral neurologists

As their name suggests, these neurologists focus on how to diagnose, treat, and manage patients who, upon suffering some type of neurological injury, present pathological behavioral patterns. In addition, they deal with patients who have problems with memory, language, attention and emotions.

These types of neurologists must know how injuries to the brain and other parts of the nervous system affect negatively in areas of the person, such as cognition, behavior, emotionality and neurological functions basic.

In most cases, treat disorders such as dyslexia, amnesia, dementia and mental disorders such as psychotic disorders. Another well-known area where these neurologists intervene are cases in which there has been an injury due to head trauma.
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