Eclecticism in Psychology: 6 advantages and disadvantages
Jul 16, 2021
In twentieth-century psychology, models and interventions emerged that did not strictly adhere to a theoretical orientation, but rather combined the contributions of several. For example, the interpersonal therapy of Klerman and Weissman, which emerged in the 1970s, was influenced by psychoanalysis, by the behaviorism and by cognitivism.
Eclecticism promotes explanatory and applied frameworks that seek to overcome the limitations of traditional perspectives, although their greater complexity can lead to difficulties. In this article we will describe the advantages and the disadvantages of eclecticism in psychology, as well as the types of integration that exist.
- Related article: "The 7 main currents of Psychology"
Types of eclecticism in psychology
There are a large number of eclectic models that combine contributions from different theoretical orientations. These are classified according to the way in which the integration of paradigms is carried out.
1. Theoretical integration
In theoretical eclecticism
Dollard and Miller's "Personality and Psychotherapy: An Analysis in Terms of Learning, Thought, and Culture" was a milestone in the history of eclecticism in psychology. In it the authors synthesized the explanations of neurosis offered by psychoanalysis and behaviorism and combined concepts such as "pleasure" and "reinforcement."
A particular case is that of metatheoretical integration, which seeks to offer a common framework in which different theories can be encompassed. For example, Neimeyer and Feixas have highlighted the suitability of constructivism as a higher-level theory that allows the convergence of models.
2. Technical eclecticism
This type of eclecticism consists of use techniques of different orientations. Lazarus, one of the pioneers of technical eclecticism, argued that theoretical integration is not feasible because of the contradictions of different perspectives, although many different tools can be useful in certain terms.
A common criterion in technical eclecticism is the level of efficacy empirically demonstrated. In this case, we seek to find the most appropriate treatments for each situation, according to scientific research.
On the other hand, the integration of techniques based exclusively on the ideas and preferences of the psychologist is called “intuitive eclecticism”. Many people have criticized this type of practice for its lack of systematization.
3. Common factors approach
Theorists of this approach seek to identify the common factors that explain the efficacy of psychological interventions. Authors such as Rosenzweig, Fiedler and Rogers they paved the way for this type of eclecticism with their studies and models on the therapist's attitude as a key variable.
Jerome Frank identified six common factors to the different psychotherapeutic orientations:
- Trust relationship between the therapist and the client.
- Offering a rational and credible explanation of the problems.
- Providing new information about problems.
- Expectations for improvement by the customer.
- Opportunity to have successful experiences and promote the feeling of mastery.
- Facilitation of emotional activation.
Advantages of eclecticism
The advantages of eclecticism they are related to the increase in complexity in the explanations and to the availability of a greater number of tools.
1. Greater explanatory capacity
Theoretical models, as well as the corresponding interventions, prioritize certain aspects of reality over others. Thus, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses almost exclusively on behavior manifest and conscious perception of the person, while psychoanalysis focuses on what is unconscious.
The combination of different orientations allows to overcome the explanatory limitations of each particular model, supplementing the weak points with the strengths of other perspectives. It is more frequent that it occurs in complementary paradigms, such as the cognitive and behavioral paradigms.
2. Enhancement of effectiveness
Having concepts and techniques from different approaches allows use the most appropriate tools for each situation instead of those indicated by a specific theory; This increases the effectiveness of the interventions. It also makes it easier to apply holistic treatments, that is, aimed at the person as a whole.
3. Individualization of interventions
Anyone has characteristics that differentiate them from the rest; therefore, tailoring interventions to each client is essential. Eclecticism is very useful in this regard, since the increase in the range of treatments makes it possible to better meet the different needs of customers.
Disadvantages of eclecticism
The negative side of eclecticism can be very relevant at times. This depends mainly on the level of complexity in integration.
1. Difficulty combining orientations
The integration of different perspectives is complicated from a conceptual point of view, among other things because requires a very deep knowledge of the guidelines and techniques involved if you want to generate a model adequately. This difficulty is especially notable in theoretical eclecticism.
2. Can be confusing
Even if the explanatory capacity of eclectic models and interventions is usually greater than that of classics, these can be difficult to transmit to experts who do not master any of the guidelines in question. Also, integrative models sometimes offer unnecessarily complex explanations.
3. Complicates the evaluation of interventions
From a research point of view, eclectic interventions are more difficult to evaluate than simple. In particular, it is very difficult to separate the therapeutic contributions of each of the guidelines or techniques used.