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Napoleonic Invasion of Europe- Summary

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Napoleonic Invasion of Europe- Summary

For practically the first two decades of the 19th century, France found themselves immersed in constant power struggles both internal and external that would result in an exhausted country but that, at the same time, came out reinforced in its ideology politics. All this would begin with the French Revolution, which would be followed by the stage of the Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte.

In this lesson from a TEACHER we bring you a summary on the Napoleonic invasion in Europe, a series of military activities, interspersed with short periods of peace, which served to establish a stable system over the new domains.

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  1. First and second contest against France
  2. The annexation of Italy, Spain and Portugal
  3. The end of the Napoleonic invasions

First and second contest against France.

Since the triumph of the French Revolution, European absolutist countries and Great Britain rushed to stop the liberal expansion that led to the Gallic country. In this way, we will find a first war against France between 1792-1797 in which Austria, Spain, Prussia, Piedmont and the United Kingdom

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they tried to defeat the french and re-establish an absolutist political system.

It was in this period when France annexed Belgium and the Rhineland, in addition to the United Provinces. Given this, a series of capitulations followed:

  • Prussia would sign the Peace of Basel in 1795
  • Piedmont between the end of 1796-1797 suffered the Napoleonic campaigns in Italy, also signing the Peace of Tolentino
  • Spain, although in principle it obtained great victories such as the War of Roussillon in 1793, saw how the troops French women entered and obtained a large part of the peninsular territory, signing the Peace of Basel in 1795 on behalf of others. Prussia
  • Austria, for its part, signed the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797 after defeating the Italians

That way Napoleon bonapartein 1797 he had expanded the borders of his country, in addition to defeating the European powers one by one.

In a second moment, between 1798-1801, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Portugal, Naples, the Papal States and the Ottoman Empire allied against France. During that period, Napoleon was in Egypt having to return immediately and joining the war in 1799.

The first element that we will find will be the removal of the board of directors in order to control the French government. After this, we will find the creation of a militia army to support the French troops on the Rhine and in Italy, catching Austria by surprise who also saw how the Russian troops left the map.

During this period we will not find any territorial annexation, although there will be an event that triggered the following movements: on October 21, 1805, the defeat of Trafalgarin front of the English navy, France losing every opportunity to make a landing in the British Isles.

Napoleonic Invasion of Europe - Summary - First and Second Contest Against France

The annexation of Italy, Spain and Portugal.

Continuing with our summary of the Napoleonic invasion of Europe, we must place ourselves in the year 1805, the time when Napoleon Bonaparte became king of Italy. At the end of September of that same year he finished off the troops of Archduke Charles of Austria, making his way to Vienna.

And on December 2, he ended up with an army much greater than his own, which was made up of Austrians and Russians. Before this Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg for which he ceded Venice and Tyrol.

On October 27, 1806 he defeated Prussia, after three years of constant wars, forcing accept the measures desired by the emperor, one of them being the continental blockade, that same year, Napoleon annexed Poland.

Year 1808 is known to be the year of the Spanish War of Independence. At the same time that the invasion began in Spain, all social classes rose up to defend the kingdom, which until 1813 would not be freed from the French yoke. It is true that the first great defeat was inflicted in that country, creating a domino effect that would eventually bring down the Napoleonic Empire.

In that same year, Portugal was also annexed and, although it was forced to begin with the continental blockade, we know that it was never carried out. Likewise, in 1810, Austria would rise again against France forcing Napoleon to leave Spain to fight them, during that time France lost Warsaw which would end up in the hands of Poland.

Ell 1810 was the year of marriage to Maria Luisa, daughter of the Austrian Emperor, and at that time, Napoleon controlled Helvetia, Germany, Warsaw, Italy, Spain, Naples, Austria and Prussia.

Napoleonic Invasion of Europe- Summary - The annexation of Italy, Spain and Portugal

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The end of the Napoleonic invasions.

To finish with the summary of the Napoleonic invasion in Europe, we must stop at the end of the Empire that between 1812-1814 it was crumbling slowly. Thus in 1812 the French troops entered Russian territory before invading Poland.

On September 2, 1812, the Napoleonic troops arrived in Moscow, very decimated and hungry due to the action of the burning of land carried out by the Russian inhabitants themselves. After this he set the city on fire and on the 7th he marched from Moscow, retreating in his footsteps, being attacked on the way; even the news reported that the retreat turned into flight or stampede on November 4. Of 650,000 who arrived in Russia, only 27,000 survived, thus winning the Tsar, Alexander I.

On the other hand, on June 21, 1813, the battle of Vitoria took place, through which France was definitively expelled from Spain.

On 1814 Napoleon abdicated in the Treaty of Fointaineblau and he was expelled to the island of Elba, thus ending the Napoleonic Empire. Even so, the general managed to escape from his prison and re-create an Empire called the Hundred Days that ended on June 22, 1815 after the battle of Waterloo, this time being exiled to the island of Saint Helena, where he ended up dying in strange circumstances.

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